Journal of Medical Surgical and Allied Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1 : 1-7. Doi : 10.37446/jmedsurg/rsa/1.1.2023.1-7
Research Article

OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Dec-2023

Evaluation of fungi contamination of fruits and vegetables

  • Uka-Okali Angela Juliet
  • Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo state University, Nigeria.
  • Ozims Stanley James
  • Federal Medical Center Umuahia, .
  • Eberendu I F
  • Department of Public Health, Madonna University Elele, Nigeria.
  • Uka Kalu Okali
  • Federal Medical Center Umuahia, Nigeria.
  • Kalu Joy
  • Department of Public Health, Madonna University Elele, Nigeria.


Background: The study investigated fruit and vegetable contamination by fungi in Abia State's three senatorial zones. That was being studied experimentally.  

Methods: Based on the appearance, structure, and features of the colonies, the microbial content of 360 sample sizes of fruits and vegetables were gathered from various markets throughout the state.

Results: Five different fungal isolates showed different levels of prevalence.: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium Solani, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium citrinum. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium Solani had the broadest distribution as they were isolated from the three zones and in five markets except Ekeamiyi Market: Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent among the samples analysed. Aspergillus flavus was the highest occurring in Abia South (38%), Aspergillus niger was most prevalent in Abia central ( 35%) and North (28%) occurrence rates. Fusarium Solani was the second most prevalent in Abia central and South (24%) and (25%) occurrence in samples analysed. Penicillium citrinum was the second highest prevalent isolate in Abia North (23%) but was the last in the zone (8%) in South. Rhizopus stolonifer was highest in South (19%) and least in South (12%).

Conclusion: There was no significant statistical difference in occurrence of fungal isolates in the three Senatorial zones of Abia State.


fungi, contamination, fruits, vegetables, Abia state


  • Abubakar, B. M., Ahmad, B., Dauda, A., & Gagman, H. A. (2020). Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from selected local markets in Katagum region, Northeast Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 4(4), 36-43.

    Bekele, F., Tefera, T., Biresaw, G., & Yohannes, T. (2017). Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Infectious diseases of poverty, 6(1), 1-7.

    Chowdappa, P., & Kumar, S. P. (2012). Existence of two genetically distinct populations of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz in mango from India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 18(2), 161-170.

    Emmanuella, D., Edwin, I., Goddey, N., & Patrick, O. (2023). Parasites Associated with Open Markets Vegetables: Implication for Public Health Interventions in Ethiope East, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 44(2), 1-9.

    Ezenwaka C. O. & Amuzie C. C. (2021). Parasitic And Microbial Infestations Of Fruits Sold At Otuoke, Ogbia Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biology and Medical Research, 4(2), 57-66

    Karshima, S. N. (2018). Parasites of importance for human health on edible fruits and vegetables in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. Pathogens and global health, 112(1), 47-55.

    Kulamter Apuu, V., Nkanga, I. I., Okita, F. O., & Sunday, J. (2022). Prevalence of Parasites of Medical Importance on Fruits and Vegetables Sold in Markets of Makurdi and Otukpo, Benue State-Nigeria. Prevalence, 9(2), 24-29.

    Li, J., Wang, Z., Karim, M. R., & Zhang, L. (2020). Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review. Parasites & Vectors, 13, 1-19.

    Mohamed, M. A., Siddig, E. E., Elaagip, A. H., Edris, A. M. M., & Nasr, A. A. (2016). Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 15, 1-7. 

    Obebe, O. O., Aluko, O. O., Falohun, O. O., Akinlabi, K. B., & Onyiche, T. E. (2020). Parasitic contamination and public health risk of commonly consumed vegetables in Ibadan-Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal, 36(1).

    Ola-Fadunsin, S. D., Adebanjo, A. O., Abdullah, D. A., Hussain, K., Sanda, I. M., Rabiu, M., ... & Oludairo, O. O. (2022). Epidemiology and public health implications of parasitic contamination of fruits, vegetables, and water in Kwara Central, Nigeria.

    Orji, J. O., Orinya, C., Okonkwo, E., Uzoh, C. V., Ekuma, U. O., Ibiam, G. A., & Onuh, N. (2016). The microbial contamination of ready-to-eat vended fruits in Abakpa Main Market, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology and Science, 11, 71-80.

    Rabiu, I., Jamilu, Z. A., Adamu, H. I., & Muhammad, U. (2021). Parasite Contamination of Freshly Harvested Vegetables from Selected Markets Located within Kano Metropolis. J Biochem Analyt Stud, 5(1).

    Samuel, O., & Orji, M. U. (2015). Fungi associated with the spoilage of postharvest tomato fruits sold in major markets in Awka, Nigeria. Universal Journal of Microbiology Research, 3(2), 11-16.

    Serra, I. M. R. D. S., Menezes, M., Coelho, R. S. B., Ferraz, G. M. G., Montarroyos, A. V. V., & Martins, L. S. S. (2011). Molecular analysis in the differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from the cashew and mango trees. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 54, 1099-1108.