Journal of Innovative Agriculture, Volume 9, Issue 1 : 1-7. Doi : 10.37446/jinagri/mra/9.1.2022.1-7

OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2022

Colocasia (Colocasia esculenta L.) in Northeast India

  • Thirugnanavel Anbalagan
  • Scientist (Fruit Science), ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur, Maharashtra-440033, India.
  • Bidyut C. Deka
  • Vice Chancellor, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam-785013, India.
  • Sethuraman Sivakumar
  • Principal Scientist (Agricultural extension), ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
  • Lily Rangnamei
  • Subject matter specialist (Horticulture), KVK-Imphal West, Manipur-795004, India.
  • Naksungla Walling
  • Guest Faculty (Horticulture), SASRD, Nagaland University, Medziphema-797106, India.


Northeast India is rich in genetic diversity of horticultural crops and colocasia is one of the important crops. This region is rich in colocasia diversity for both cultivated and wild species particularly in jhum fields, homestead gardens, near water bodies, river banks, forests and road sides. Wide range of variability is observed in vegetative characters, corm and cormel characters, yield and quality characters.  It is cultivated in jhum field as a mixed crop along with paddy and other crops like ginger, chilli, maize, turmeric etc. and in homestead garden, it is cultivated along with maize, cucurbits, chilli, King chilli, etc. The nutrient rich and gluten free tuber crop is an integral part of traditional cuisines of ethnic people of this region. All the plant parts of this ariod member are edible. Several traditional dishes have been prepared from leaves, petioles and tubers. The leaves, petioles and damaged tubers are also fed to pig and poultry. Recent past, the genetic diversity of colocasia is under threat due to urbanization, climate change, introduction of new crops, and pest and diseases and resulted in genetic erosion. The conservation of these vast gene pool is necessary.


colocasia, botany, genetic variability, nutritive value


  • Angami, T., Jha, A.K. ., Juri Buragohain, Bidyut C. Deka, Verma, V.K., & Amit Nath. (2015). Evaluation of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) cultivars for growth, yield and quality attributes. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 10(2), 183-189

    Balagopalan, C., Nayar, T.V.R., Sundaresan, S., Premkumar, T. & Lakshmi, K.R. (1999). Tropical tuber crops in food security and nutrition. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

    Barwal, R.N. (1988). Outbreaks and new records in India – Record of new pests of taro, Colocasia esculenta L., in the Northeastern region. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 36 (4), 187.

    Bose, T.K., Kabir, J., Maity, T.K., Parthasarathy, V.A., & Som, M.G. (2003). In: Vegetable crops, Vol. 2. Naya Udyog Publishers, Kolkata, pp. 413 – 442.

    Bradburry, J. H. & Holloway, W. D. (1998). Chemistry of tropical root crops: Significance for nutrition and agriculture in the Pacific. ACIAR, Canberra, ACIAR Monograph No. 6: 201.

    Buragohain, J.,  Angami, T., Choudhary, B.U.,  Singh, P., Bhatt, B.P., Thirugnanavel, A., & Bidyut C. Deka. (2013). Quality Evaluation of Indigenous Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) Cultivars of Nagaland. Indian Journal of Hill Farming, 26(2),16-20

    Chatterjee, D., Rukuosietuo Kuotsu, Sanjay Kumar Ray, Patra, M.K., Thirugnanavel, A., Rakesh Kumar, Borah,T.R.,  Pulakabha Chowdhury, Imliakum Pongen, Satapathy, B.S. and Bidyut C. Deka (2021). Preventing soil degradation in shifting cultivation using integrated farming system models, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, DOI: 10.1080/03650340.2021.1937139

    Chowdhury, S. (1944). Some fungi from Assam. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19 (3), 230-233.

    Deka, B.C., Thirugnanavel, A., Patel, R.K., Amit Nath, & and Deshkukh, N.A. (2012). Horticultural diversity in North-East India and its improvement for value addition. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 72(2),157-167.

    Haldar, A., Dhrubajyoti Das, Ashok Santra, Prasenjit Pal, Saptak Dey, Anup Das, Dipjyoti Rajkhowa, Hazarika, S., & Datta, M. (2017). Traditional Feeding System for Pigs in Northeast India. International Journal of Livestock Research, 7(8), 122-132.

    Ivancic, A. (2011). INEA Hybridization Protocols.

    Khatemenla, S. Alam, Madhumita Barooah, Deepa B. Phookan,  Prakash Kalita , Madhumita C. Talukdar, &  and Star Luikham. (2019). SSR Marker-Based Molecular Characterization of Some Upland Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) Cultivars of North-East India. International of Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(6), 2310-2320

    Kuhnlein, H.V.(2009). Why are indigenous peoples’food systems important and why do they need documentation?. In: Kuhnlein, H.V., Eramus, B, and Spigelski, D. (Eds) Indigenous people’s food systems: the many dimensions of culture, diversity and environment for nutrition and health. p. 1-7.

    Rajasekhara Rao Korada. (2013). Corm-Borer Aplosonyx chalybaeus (Hope) – A serious pest of Taro in Eastern Himalayan Region. In: Aroids- Oppurtunities and Challenges. Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

    Kumaresan, A., Bujarbaruah, K.M., Pathak, K.A., Chhetri Bijoy, Das, S.K., Das Anubrata, & Ahmed S.K. (2007). Performance of pigs reared under traditional tribal low input production system and chemical composition of non-conventional tropical plants used as pig feed. Livestock Science, 107, 294-298.

    Kumaresan, A., Bujarbaruah, K.M., Pathak, K.A., Das, A., & Bardoloi, R.K. (2009). Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41,1187–1196.

    Kumaresan, A., Hussain, J., Ahmed, S.K., Pathak, K.A., Das, A., & Bujarbaruah, K.M. (2006). Growth Performance of Hampshire, Large White Yorkshire and Mizo Local Pigs under Mizoram Field Conditions. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 76, 148-150.

    Mathews, P. (2004). Genetic diversity in taro and the preservation of culinary knowledge. Ethnobotany Research and. Applications, 2, 55-71

    Matthews,  P.J. (1991). A possible tropical wild type taro (Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis). Indo Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 11, 69-81

    Matthews, P. J. (1990). The Origins, Dispersal and Domestication of Taro. PhD, The Australian National University: Canberra.

    Mergedus, A., Kristl, J., Ivancic, A., Sober, A., Sustar, V., Krizan, T., & Lebot, V. (2015).Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) Corms. Food chemistry, 170, 37-46.

    Misra, R.S, (1996). Prevalence and assessment of yield losses of Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia in Northertn and Eastern part of India. In: Kurup GT, Palaniswamy MS, Potty VP, Padmaja G, Kabiruthmma S, Pillai SV (Eds) Tropical Tuber Crops: Problems, Prospects and Future Strategies, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, pp 380-388

    Misra, R.S., Sharma, K., & Mishra, A.K. (2008). Phytophthora Leaf Blight of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) – A Review. The Asian and Australasian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2 (2), 55-63.

    Mwenye, O.J., Labuschagne, M.T., Herselman, L., & Benesi, I.R.M.  (2011). Mineral composition of Malawian cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) genotypes. Journal of Biological Sciences, 11 (4), 331-335

    Pandey, G.  & Dobhal, V.K.  (1997). Multivariate analysis in taro (Colocasia esculenta L.). Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 57 (3), 262-265.

    Pardales, J.R. (1980). Factors limiting fruit set and seed set in taro. Annals of Tropical Research, 2(3), 165-171.

    Patra, M.K., Sonuwara Begum, & Bidyut C. Deka. (2014). Problems and Prospects of Traditional Pig Farming for Tribal Livelihood in Nagaland. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, 14 (4), 6-11.

    Plucknett, D. L. (1976). Edible aroids: Alocasia, Colocasia, Cyrtosperma, Xanthosoma. In: Evolution of Crop Plants, ed. N. W. Simmonds, pp. 10-12.

    Pongener, N. & Daiho, L. (2016). Survey on leaf blight of taro (Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski) in Nagaland. Acta Horticulturae, 1118, 125-130

    Purseglove, J. W. (1972). Tropical Crops. Monocotyledons I, Longman, London, pp. 58-75.

    Ramachandran, K. (1978). Cytological studies on South Indian Araceae. Cytologia, 43, 289-307

    Sahu, A.K., Maheshwari, S.K., Sriram, S., & Misra, R.S. (2000). The effects of temperature and pH on the growth of Phytophthora colocasiae. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 8(1), 112-114.

    Sajeev, M.V., Singha, A.k., & Venkatasubramanian, V. (2010). Farming Systems of North East India, Technical bulletin, published by Zonal Project Directorate, Zone – III.

    Sarma, B.K., (2001). Underutilized crops for hills and mountain ecosystems. Summer school on agriculture for hills and mountain ecosystem, pp 308-314

    Sethuraman S. P., Anantharaman, M., Thirugnanavel, A., Ramanathan, S. & Punitha, P. (2013). Traditional tuber crops food of North-Eastern India. Published by Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Sreekariyam, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala.

    Sethuraman, P. S., Thirugnanavel, A., & Chakruno, M. (2014). Understanding the Mechanisms of Achieving Food and Nutitional Security through Traditional Tuber Crops Foods: A Case Study among Konyak Tribes of Nagaland, India. Journal of Root Crops, 40(2), 49-57.

    Singh, M., Romen Sharma, P.H., Talimoa Mollier, R., Ebibeni Ngullie, Santosh Kumar Baisyha, & Rajkhowa, D.J. (2019). Tribal farmers’ traditional knowledge and practices for pig farming in Nagaland. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 89(3), 329–333

    Singh, S., Singh, D. R., Faseela, F., Kumar, N., Damodaran, V., & and Srivastava, R. C. (2012). Diversity of 21 taro (Colocasia  esculenta (L.) Schott) accessions of Andaman Islands. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 59(5), 821-829.

    Choudhary, V.K., Suresh Kumar, P.,  James George, Kanwat, M., &  Saravanan, R. (2011). Genetic Variability and Character Association in Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.) Under Mid-Hills of Arunachal Pradesh. Journal of Root Crops, 37(2), 155-161.

    Straus, M.S. (1983). Variability in taro (Colocasia esculenta) starches: Size, gelation and amylase content. Proc. 6th Symposium of International Society for Tropical Crop (Peru, 1983), International Potato Centre, Lima, Peru, pp. 165-170

    Strauss, M. S., Stephens, G.C.,  Gonzales, C.J., & Arditti, J. (1980). Genetic variability in taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae). Annals of Botany, 45, 429-437.

    Sunell, L. A., and P. L. Healey. 1979. Distribution of calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts in corms of taro (Colocasia esculen ta). Amer. J. Bot. 66, 1029-1032.

    Thirugnanavel, A.,  Lily Rangnamei, Martha Chakruno, & Bidyut C. Deka. (201). Genetic diversity of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) in Mon district, Nagaland, needs attention for its conservation. Current Science, 105 (8), 1036-1037.

    Thirugnanavel, A., Deka, B. C., Rangnamei, L., Meyase, M., & Patel, J. K. (2015). Colocasia and its genetic diversity in Northeast India. Technical bulletin published by Director, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani, Meghalaya.


  • No.of Views (524)
  • PDF Downloads (232)