Identifying the current farming system is important for different agricultural policy implementation as climate variability changed the farming system in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to analyze the current farming system of crop-livestock and agro-pastoral areas in the south omo zone. A multistage sampling method was used to select 240 sample respondents from the study districts. Descriptive statistics and narrative approaches were used to analyze data. The result indicated that there was a dominance of crop production (63.3%) and supportive livestock production (36.7%) in crop-livestock farming system whereas in agro pastoral farming livestock dominates (72.5%) with supportive crop production (27.5%). The result also indicated that the main livestock production constraints for farmers and agro-pastorals in the area are extensive drought and erratic rainfall, diseases, shortage of veterinary medicine, feed and water shortage. Moreover, the survey result shows that poor soil fertility management, low inputs use, pests (diseases and insects), delay of input supply and high costs are the main impediments in crop production for farmers and agro-pastorals in the area. The major constraints of natural resources in the study are soil fertility decline, land shortage due to fragmentation of land for their children and deforestation. Therefore, it needs more attention to reverse the mentioned major constraints so as to enhance production and productivity. Timely supply of improved inputs, improved forage, methods of disease control and intensifying natural resource management and creating better awareness on physical and biological soil management are critical for improvements of soil to enhance productivity.
The decline in soil fertility and shortage of rainfall has been the main reason for the low productivity of Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), particularly in the northern part of Ethiopia. A field experiment was conducted to examine the impact of planting method and nitrogen fertilizer rates on the yield and protein content of irrigated Tef. The experiment consisted of four planting methods (pelleting, broadcasting, row planting, and transplanting) and six N fertilizer rate (0, 23, 46, 69,92 and 115 kg ha-1) combined in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Seven response variables, heading date, maturity date, plant height, number of productive tillers, above ground biomass yield, grain yield, and grain protein content of Tef have been collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance showed that all parameters, with the exception of grain protein content, were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the interacting effects of planting methods and nitrogen levels. The highest values of all parameters were obtained from transplanting and N rate of 92 kg ha-1, although Tef plants receiving this treatment were extremely tall and were late in heading and maturity periods, which may have a negative implication Tef under rainfed system. In irrigated Tef, the nitrogen rate exponentially increased grain protein content until 92 kg ha-1N, which optimizes the nutritional quality of the crop, unlike the rainfed agricultural system.
Late sowing and drought under late sown conditions of wheat are the major constraints on wheat production in South Asian countries. The yield of wheat is significantly reduced due to the lack of irrigation water and temperature-induced late sown in Nepal. To identify late sown drought tolerant genotypes of wheat a field experiment was conducted using twenty elite wheat genotypes at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Paklihawa Campus, Nepal in an alpha lattice design with two replication using ten stress tolerance indices (STIs) (Tolerance Index (TOL), Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Yield Stability Index (YSI), Modified Stress Tolerance Index 1 (MSTI 1), and Modified Stress Tolerance Index 2 (MSTI 2)). NL 1368 and Bhirkuti was found to have highest yield under late sown and drought under late sown condition. The grain yield was found to be reduced from 10.7% to 43.1 % under late sown drought conditions with a mean reduction of 23.67% in comparison with late sown condition showing a direct effect of drought under late sown condition on grain yield of wheat. Correlation analysis showed, yield at late sown condition and yield at drought under late sown condition were significantly positively correlated to MP, GMP, STI, MSTI1, and MSTI2. Principal component biplot analysis showed, Yp and Ys both were positively correlated with MP, GMP, MSTI1, and MSTI2. Hence, selection based on MP, GMP, MSTI1, and MSTI2 would give a high-yielding genotype under both conditions. The first two principal components cumulatively explains 98.720% of total variation for stress tolerance indices and Bhirkuti, BL 4919, NL 1368, and NL 1376 were found to be high yielding potential genotypes across both environments. Thus, these can be used as a genetic material for yield improvement in wheat.
The study was conducted in the agro-pastoral agro-ecology of the Bena-Tsemay woreda to demonstrate, promote, and evaluate the productive performance of Boer x-Woyto-Guji crossbred bucks (75% and 50% Boer) and their progenies under agro-pastoral management systems. Data were analyzed using statistical software by SPSS version 23.0. The kids’ body weight was recorded for one year in three age groups, 0-3, 3-6 and 6-12 months. A total of 139 (70 with 25% and 69 with 37.5% Boer blood) crossbred kids were evaluated to assess the effect of blood level on body weight (kg). The overall average BWT, WWT, SMWT, and YWT of the crossbred kids were 2.82kg, 9.3kg, 14.14kg, and 17.68kg, respectively. The average BWT, WWT, SMWT, and YWT of the 25% and 37.5% blood level crossbred kids were (2.79, 2.93kg), (8.60, 9.99kg), (13.47, 15.14kg) and (16.84, 19.02kg), respectively. In both blood levels and at different age categories, male and single kids had heavier BWT, WWT, SMWT, and YWT than twin and female kids. The overall ADG of crossbred from 0-3, 3-6, and 6-12 months were 69.01, 57.11, and 39.43gm/day. The crossbred kids had higher gain from birth to 180 days of age. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in ADG of blood level, type of birth and sex from birth to six months of age. The pre-weaning mortality rates of single and twins were 11.5% and 15.38%, respectively. About 73.4% of households perceived and preferred the crossbred goat although criticized it as weak in disease resistance and special care requirements. It is concluded that, crossbreeding using 50% and 75% Boer crossbred bucks is an ideal and suitable scheme for improving the indigenous goat body weight under agro-pastoral management conditions. Furthermore, the terminal crossbred bucks, kids not used to produce replacement, could be a remarkable option for marketing.
The Euphorbiaceae family includes Jatropha curcas L., a tree with the greatest potential for producing biofuel. A perennial, drought-resistant, and extremely adaptable plant, it is gaining prominence in the biodiesel industry. Ratanjyot, Nutmeg plant, Barbados nut, and Physic nut are some of its more well-known names. Jatropha trees grow 3 to 6 meters tall, with heart-shaped green leaves, smooth, grey bark, and latex. A huge shrub or small tree known as Jatropha curcas L. produces seeds containing inedible oil. Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant, can be cultivated as a commercial crop or on farms in areas with varying precipitation levels, ranging from low to high. Plants can be grown as a crop or as a border hedge to keep grazing animals away from crops and minimize soil erosion. Jatropha leaves, seeds, and bark have been used medicinally since ancient times, treating constipation, anthelmintic difficulties, and stomach illnesses. Many different secondary metabolites were discovered when physio-chemists studied the extracts and latex, such as alkaloids, saponins, curcin, curcusones-B, curcain, lectin, curcacycline A, phorbol acetate, tannins, steroids, etc. The J. curcas plant is used in various ways, including replacing fossil fuel diesel for domestic purposes, soap production, and raw materials for dye. Due to their Antiviral, Anticancer, Antidiarrheal, larvicidal and insecticidal activities are currently receiving a lot of interest. It is a versatile tree species suitable for agroforestry and other afforestation programs. Exploration has been conducted into plant potential utilization for diverse purposes