Legumes are the major source of energy for people throughout the world and play a significant role in a balanced diet to satisfy the body's need for protein. Soybean (Glycine max L.) is also a poor man meat which is a highly enriched amount of protein present in it. Day-by-day increase in the worldwide population is also a great challenge to improve the yield and nutritional values. Here are some exciting ways to improve the yield and nutrition values through basic and advanced techniques that are particularly important and worldwide use. A unique idea called "biofortification" involves the enrichment of micronutrients using traditional plant breeding and contemporary technologies. Research on grain bio-fortification has considerably reduced hunger globally over the past few decades. The current bio-fortification programs are now more competitive due to a better understanding of the food matrix. Recent advancements in biotechnology have a variety of positive effects, and genetic engineering is developing quickly. Since genome editing technology has made it possible to precisely alter and change the genomes of living beings, it has transformed genetic and biological research, the simplest example is CRISPR CAS9. We concentrate on the most recent developments in CRISPR/Cas9-based technology and talk about the prospects and difficulties of using this ground-breaking technology to improve specific characteristics in soybeans and other crops.
Lack of best-performing breed was the main chicken production problem, & keeping improved breeds boosts chicken meat and egg production. An experiment targeted with adaptation & performance evaluation of the Koekoek breed was conducted in the Hammer district. A purposive sampling method was used to select kebele & households. After the provision of training the poultry house was constructed. Vaccination was provided for economically important diseases & 21 pullet chickens were distributed to each 25 households. The commercial feed was used initially, then home-prepared feed in addition to scavenging. The trial chickens were managed for 18 months. Mortality (19.8%) was the collective effect of predator, disease, stress, & injury with overall survival of 80.2%. The average body weight was 1.95 & 1.33 Kg for males & females at the age of 175 & 208 days respectively. The average yearly egg production & egg weight was 145 & 47.2 gram, respectively. The breed was preferred due to its egg production, body weight, scavenging, & less disease exposure. However, the veterinary vaccines, awareness gap of keepers, absence of breed, & feed shortage were the main factors. So, the breed showed good adaptation, performed well & highly preferred defending the hindering factors. Therefore, there should be strong awareness creation, the accessibility of the breed should be secured by extension, & feed trial experiments should be recommended to know the full genomic potential of the breed.
The majority of the wheat-growing area of Nepal depends upon seasonal rainfall for irrigation. Water scarcity during the critical wheat growing phases has been a major cause of poor production of wheat. To cope with the poor performance of wheat under rainfed conditions, it is crucial to identify the genotype adaptive to moisture-restricted conditions. The experiments were carried out using twenty wheat genotypes in alpha lattice design with two replications under irrigated and rainfed conditions at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Bhairahawa, Rupandehi. The genotypic evaluation was done using the Tolerance Index (TOL), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Yield Stability Index (YSI), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), and Stress Tolerance Index (STI). Results showed grain yield of wheat was reduced by 64% under rainfed as compared to irrigated conditions. Correlation showed MP, GMP, and STI had a significant positive correlation with yield at irrigated (Yp) and yield at rainfed (Ys). Hence MP, GMP, and STI could be used to identify the high-yielding and stress-tolerant genotypes. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and biplot suggested, Nepal Line(NL) 1506 and NL 1508 as high-yielding and stress tolerant wheat genotypes. Hence these genotypes can further be evaluated in plant breeding programs to release as a climate resilient wheat genotypes for the overall yield improvement and food and nutritional security of Nepal.
Besides the existence of genetic variation, the relationship between traits determines whether plant breeding is successful. As a result, identifying the influence of yield-related traits on yield is critical. Hence, in 2020/21 cropping season, this study was carried out using 70 upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at Pawe, to determine the magnitude of association and the direct and indirect influence of yield component traits on grain yield of rice. Traits such as biomass, days to heading, and days to maturity, productive tiller, panicle length, and field grain per panicle have shown medium to high positive association (0.35-0.85) with grain yield. On the Path analysis except days to heading all traits mentioned above had a positive direct influence on grain yield ranging from 0.05 to 0.62. Traits like days to heading, days to maturity, productive tillers, and grain width had moderate positive indirect effects on grain yield. Therefore, in the process of selecting rice genotypes for further breeding programs of yield improvement characters like biomass yield that had the highest positive association and high direct influence could be primarily used as selection criteria since improvement of these traits leads to grain yield increment.