Journal of Innovative Agriculture, Volume 1, Issue 1 : 22-30. Doi : 10.37446/jinagri/1.1.2014.22-30
Research Article

OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Dec-2014

Effect of drying methods on physical and chemical characteristics of dried Byadagi chilli

  • Manjula B
  • Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, College of Food Science and Technology, Pulivendula-516 390.
  • C T Ramachandra
  • Department of Agricultural Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur.


The effect of drying methods and pre-treatments on the quality of dried Byadagi chilli (Capsicum annuum Linn.) were investigated. The temperature of open yard sun drying around 37°C and solar tunnel drying around 60°C was used. The quality parameters viz., moisture content, colour (L*, a*, b* values), ascorbic acid content, capsaicin content, titrable acidity and aflatoxin content. The solar tunnel-dried (STD) sample gave more bright-red colour and contained higher ascorbic acid content than the open yard sun-dried (OYSD) samples (P<0.05). The aflatoxin content was monitored using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The Byadagi chilli dried in solar tunnel dryer showed less aflatoxin content than open yard sun drying. In addition, the unique visible attributes in the STD and OYSD samples were bright and dull, respectively.


Drying chilli, quality, ascorbic acid, capsaicin, aflatoxin


  • A.O.A.C. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th edn. U.S.A: Gaithersburg.

    Ajithkumar, K. and Naik, M.K. 2006. Detection of aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolates from chilli and their management by post-harvest treatments. J. Food          Sci. Tech., 43(2): 200-204.

    Bajaj, K.L., Kaur, G. and Sooch, B.S. 1980. Varietal varation in some important chemical constituents in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits. Vegetable Science, 7: 48-54.

    BeMiller, J.N. and Whistler, R.L. 1996. Carbohydrate. In: Fenema, O.R. (Ed.). Food Chemistry, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 216-217p.

    Berke, T.G. and Shieh, S.C. 2001. Capsicum, chillies, paprikas, bird’s eye chilli. In: Peter, K. V. (Ed.). Handbook of herbs and spices, Washington: CRC press. 111-121p.

    Bircan, C. 2005. The determination of aflatoxins in spices by immunoaffinity column extraction using HPLC. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 40: 929-934.

    CFTRI. 1979. Technical note on sun drying of chilli. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices 3: 16.

    Condori, M., Echazu, R. and Saravia, L. 2001. Solar drying of sweet pepper and garlic using the tunnel greenhouse drier. Renewable Energy, 22: 447-460.

    Davidson, S.S. 1979. Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 7th Edn., Churchill, London, 129-132p.

    Devi, K.T., Mayo, M.A., Reddy, K.L.N., Delfose, P., Reddy, G., Reddy, S. V. and Reddy,         D.V. R. 1990. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies for          aflatoxins B1.  Lett. Applies Microbiol., 29: 284-289.

    Diaz-Maroto, M.C., Perez-Coello, M.S., Vinas, M.A.G. and Cabezudo, M.D. 2003. Influence of drying on the flavour quality of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). J. Agril. Food Chemistry, 51: 1265-1269.

    Famurewa, F.A.V., Oluwamukomi, M.O. and Adenuga, A.L. 2006. Dehydration of osmosised red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). Res. J. Biology Sci., 1(1-4): 36-39.

    Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. 1976. Statistical Procedure for Agric. Res.  2nd Edn. A Willey Inter Science Publication, New York, 680p.

    Hossain, M.A. 2003. Forced convection solar drying of chilli. Ph.D. thesis. Bangladesh Agricultural University. Mymensingh.

    Howard, L.R., Smith, R.T., Wagner, A.B., Villalon, B. and Burns, E.E. 1994. Provitamin             A and ascorbic acid content of fresh pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum) and processed jalapeños. J. Food Sci., 59: 362-365.

    Jitbunjerdkul, S. and Kijroongrojana, K. 2007. Formulation of Thai herbal Namprik. Songkanakarin. J. Sci. Tech., 29(3): 837-846.

    Joy, C.M., George, P.P. and Jose, K.P. 2001. Solar tunnel drying of red chillies. J. Food Sci. Tech., 38(3): 213-216.

    Jyothi, P., Jagdish, S., Ajay, V., Singh, A.K., Mathura, R. and Sanjeet, K. 2008. Evaluation of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes for some quality traits. J. Food Sci. Tech., 45(5): 463-465.

    Kim, D.Y., Rhee, C.O. and Shin, S.C. 1982. Changes in colour of red pepper during drying and milling. Journal of the Korean Chemical Society, 25: 1-7.

    Kim, S., Lee, K.W., Park, J., Lee, H.J. and Hwang, I.K. 2006. Effect of drying in             antioxidant activity and changes of ascorbic acid and colour by different drying and storage in Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 41: 90-95.

    Klieber, A. 2000. Chilli spice production in Australia. Rural Indutries Research and Development Corporation. Final report. RIRDC, Canberra, Australia.

    Koh, F.M. 2005. Physicochemical properties of pepper mash fermented in wood and plastic. Master of Science Thesis. Louisiana State University.

    Kumar, B.K., Munshi, A.D., Joshi, S. and Charanjeet, K. 2003. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and biochemical character in chilli (Capsicum annuum          L.). Capsaicin Eggplant News Letter, 22: 67-70.

    Lee, D.S., Chung, S.K. and Yam, K.L. 1992. Carotenoid loss in dried red pepper products. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 27: 179-185.

    Levine, M., Rumsey, S.C., Daruwala, R., Ark, J.B. and Wang, Y. 1998. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA, 281(15): 1415-1423.

    MAFF. 1994. Survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices. Food Surveillance Information Sheet No. 22, UK.

    Mangaraj, S., Singh, A., Samuel, D.V.K. and Singhal, O.P. 2001, Comparative performance evaluation of different drying methods for chillies. J. Food Sci. Tech., 38(3): 296-299.

    Mayer, A. and Harel, E. 1979. Polyphenol oxidases in plants. Phytochemistry, 18: 193-215.

    Oberoi, H.S., Ahmed, K.U.M., Jaspreet, K. and Bangali, B. 2005. Quality red chilli variety as affected by different drying methods. J. Food Sci. Tech., 42(5): 384-387.

    Papa kumari, D., Ravishankar, C., Satyanarayana, V.V. and Rao, B.V. 2003. Effect ofchemical treatment and drying methods on drying time, pod length and pod damage of chilli (cv. LCA 235). J. Food Sci. Tech., 40(2): 233-235.

    Paterson, R.R.M., 2007. Fungi and fungal toxins as weapons. Food Control, 18: 817-820.

    Pitt, J.I. and Hocking, A.D. 1997. Fungi and food spoilage. 2nd edn. Blackie Academic and Professional. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.

    RDA. 2001. Food Composition Table. 6th edn. Korea: National Rural Living Science Institute.

    Reddy, S.V., Kiran, M.D., Uma, R.M., Thirumala, D.K. and Reddy, D.V.R. 2001. aflatoxins B1 in different grades of chillies (Capsicum annuum L.) in India as             determined by indirect competitive ELISA. Food Additives and Contaminants, 18(6): 553-558.

    Sadashivam, S. and Manickam, A. 1992, Biochemical methods for Agricultural Sciences. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. 199-201pp.

    Shittu, T.A., Ogunmoyela, O.A. and Sanni, L.O. 1999. Nutrient retention and sensory characteristics of dried leafy vegetables: In 23rd Annu. NIFST Conference. 25-27th October Proceedings, Abuja.

    Shrivastava, R.P. and Sanjeev Kumar. 1994. Fruit and Vegetable Preservation Principle andPractices. International Book Distributing Company, Lucknow. 229-232pp.

    Singh, R., Hundal, J.S. and Chawala, N. 2003. Evaluation of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes for quality components. Ind. J. Agril. Sci., 73: 51-53.

    Singhal, V. 1999. Chillies In: Indian Agriculture, Indian Economic Data Research Centre, New Delhi. 420-425pp.

    Sudha and Naik, M.K. 2008. Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination and pesticide residues in chilli grown in Northern Karnataka Region. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.

    Thirumala Devi, K.T., Mayo, M.A., Gopal, R.S.V., Delfose, P. and Reddy, D.V.R. 2000. Production of polyclonal antibodies against ochratoxin A and its detection by             ELISA. J. Agril. Food Chem., 48: 5079-5082.

    Tontand, S. and Therdthai, N. 2009, Preliminary study of chili drying using microwaveassisted vacuum drying technology,

    Topuz, A. and Ozdemir, F. 2004. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the capsaicinoids of sun-dried and dehydrated paprika. Food Chemistry, 86: 509-515.

    Wall, M.M. and Bosland, P.W. 1993. The shelf-life of chillies and chilli containing products. In Charalambous, G., (Ed). Shelf Life Studies of Food and Beverages. p. 487-500. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Wang, Y., Xia, Y., Wang, J., Luo, F. and Huang, Y. 2009. Capsaiciniods in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder as affected by heating and storage methods. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 52: 2007-2010.