Journal of Innovative Agriculture, Volume 2, Issue 4 : 1-9
Research Article

OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 29-Dec-2015

Efficacy of biocontrol agents, plant extracts and organic amendments against black rot of cabbage caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

  • Deivamani M
  • Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Yethapur, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • M Muthamilan
  • Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Cabbage is one of the most popular winter cruciferous vegetables grown in India. It is mostly cultivated in cool places and hence, the crop is mostly affected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) (Pammel) causes black rot disease worldwide. Increased usage of different chemicals based products to control these pathogens have resulted in problems like residual effect of chemicals in agri-based products and also increased resistance for chemicals in target pathogens and environmental pollution. The crude extracts of some well-known botanicals, biocontrol agents and organic amendments are used to control some of the plant pathogens.  The results of botanicals the leaf extract of Datura stramonium (10%) was maximum inhibition and minimum inhibition of Ocimum basilicum were recorded. Whereas, the biocontrol agents of Streptomyces spp and Trichoderma viride showed maximum inhibition zone were effective against the growth of Xcc.


Black rot of cabbage, antibacterial activity, plant extracts, biological agents


  • Assis, S.M.P., R.L.R. Mariano, S.J. Michereff and R.S.B. Coelho. 1996. Biocontrol of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on kale with Bacillus spp. and endophytic bacteria. In: T. Wenhua et al. (Eds.). Advances in Biological Control of Plant Diseases, Beijing. Pp 347-353.

    Babadoost, M. 1999. Black rot of cabbage and other crucifers. Report on plant disease Department of crop sciences. University of Illinois at Urbana – champion.

    Blackeman, J.P., A.E. Brown and P.C. Mercer. 1992. Biological control of plant diseases present and future trends. Pesqu. Agropecu. Bras., 27: 151-164.

    Carpenter, M.A., H.J. Ridgway, A M. Stringer, A.J. Hay and A. Stewart. 2008. Characterisation of a Trichoderma hamatum monooxygenase gene involved in antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. Curr. Genet., 53: 193–205.

    Chakravarti, B.P., S.V. Hedge and D.K. Gupta. 1974. Development of black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris in rooted detached cabbage leaves. Curr. Sci ., 43: 49 -50.

    Chakravarti, C.N., M.K. Krishnappa and B. Thippeswamy. 2004. Seed borne nature and transmission of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. cymopsidis in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 34(2): 223 – 227.

    Dowson, W.J. 1939. On the systamic position and generic names of the gram negative bacterial plant pathogens. Zentrabl Bacterial parasitenk INfektionskr. Hyg. Abt II., 100: 177-193.

    Dubey, S.C. 2002.  Efficacy of some oil cakes and plant extracts against web blight in urd and mung bean caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris. J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 32(2): 158-161.

    Fauth, U., H. Zaher, A. Muhlenfeld and H. Achenbach. 1986. Galbonolidies A and B two non-glycosidic antifungal macrolides. J. Antibiot., 39: 1760-1764.

    Garcia, B.N.O., M. Rodriguez and L. Made. 1994. Control of black rot of crucifers Xanthomonas campestris in cabbage with plant extracts and addition of foliar tissue to the soil in chapingo, Mexico, Revista chapingo, serie protection. Vegetal (Mexico), 1(1): 35-38.

    Garg, S.C and H.L. Kasera. 1984. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Anacardium occidentale Linn. Indian Perfumer, 28 (2): 95-97.

    Getha, K. and S.Vikineswary. 2002. Antagonistic effects of Streptomyces violaceusniger strain G10 on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4: Indirect evidence for the role of antibiosis in the antagonistic process. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 28: 303–10.

    Grainge, M.D and A.M. Alvarez. 1987. Antibacterial and antifungal activity
    of Artabotrys hexapetalus leaf extracts. International J. Trop. Pl. Dis., 5(2): 173-179.

    Griffin, M.J. and L.A.E. Baker. 1976. Bacterial wilt of wall flowers caused by Xanthomonas campestris. Plant Pathology, 25(2): 108-114.

    Harish, S., D. Saravanakumar, R. Radjacommare, E.G. Ebenezar and K .Seetharaman. 2008. Use of plant extracts and biocontrol agents for the management of brown spot disease in rice. Biocontrol, 53: 555–567.

    Hauben, L. 1997. Comparison of 165 ribosomal DNA sequences of all Xanthomonas species. IJSB., 47: 328-335.

    Jayaraj, S., A.V. Rangarajan, P.C. Sundarababu, R. Jayarajan, K. Sivaprakasam and Sivagami vadivelu. 1987. Collaborative programme on pest and disease surveillance in Horticultural crops. TNAU offset and printing press. Coimbatore. pp 30.

    Manonmani, K. 2004. Induced systemic resistance in the management of canker disease of citrus caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Ph. D. thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-3. pp147-149.

    Mckinney, H.H. 1923. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedlings by Helminthosporium sativum. J. Agri. Res., 26: 195-217.

    Nitschke. M and V. Rodrigues. 2000. Effect of virulence and serial transfers of Xanthomonas campestris on xanthan gum production. Brazilian journal of microbiology, 31: 58 – 60.

    Ravikumar, M.R., J. Sharmarao and A.K.A. Khan. 2003. Management of bacterial leaf spot of grape through chemicals and antibiotics in Northen Karnataka. Indian Phytopath., 56: 341.

    Reis, A., S.S. Azevedo, S.M.P. Assis and R.L.R. Mariano. 1996. Screening yeasts isolates for biological control of Bipolaris zeicola leaf spot on corn. In: Advances in Biological Control of Plant Diseases. Eds. Wenhua,
    T. Cook, R.J. Rovira, A., China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, China. pp. 3687-373.

    Sabaratnam, S. and J.A. Traquair. 2002. Formulation of a Streptomyces biocontrol agent for the suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off in tomato transplants. Biol. Cont., 23: 245-253.

    Sain. S.K., H.N. Gour and P. Sharma. 2005. Biocontrol of black rot of cauliflower by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 35: 99-102.

    Satish, S., K.A. Raveesha and G.R. Janardhana. 1999. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Letters in applied microbiology, 28: 145-147.

    Seebold, K., P. Bachi and J. Beale. 2008. Blackrot of crucifers. UK Cooperative extension service. University of Kentucky – College of agriculture.

    Sendhilvel, V. 2000. Studies on the bacterial soft rot of onion bulbs caused by E. carotovora (Jones). M.Sc. Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ., Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. pp.133.

    Sharma, P., S.R. Sharma and M. Sindhu. 2004. A detached leaf technique for evaluation of resistance in cabbage and cauliflower against three major pathogens. Indian phytopath., 57: 315-318.

    Shekhawat, P.S. and R. Prasad. 1971. Antifungal properties of some plant extracts and inhibition of spore germination. Indian phytopath., 24: 800-802.

    Smale, B.C. and H.C. Keil. 1966. A biological studies of the intervarietal resistance of Pyrus communis to fire blight. Phytochemistry, 5: 1113-1120.

    Starr, M.D. and D.W. Dye. 1965. Scoring virulence of phytopathogenic bacteria. Newzealand J. Sci., 8: 93-105.

    Trejo-Estrada, S.R., I. Rivas Sepulveda and D.L. Crawford. 1998. In vitro and in vivo antagonism of Streptomyces violaceusniger YCED9 against fungal pathogens of turfgrass. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 14: 865-872.

    Tronsmo, A. 1986. Use of Trichoderma for biological control of necrotrophic pathogens. Microbiology of phyllosphere (N.J. Fokkema and J.V.D. Heuvel, Eds) Cambridge university press, Cambridge, pp.348-362.

    Waksman, S.A. 1952. Soil microbiology. John wiley and sons, Inc., New York, Londan, Chapman and Hall Ltd., Londan. pp.356.  

    Yamunarani. K. 2009. Management of stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Plant Pathology, TNAU, Madurai. Pp. 237.



  • No.of Views (470)
  • PDF Downloads (248)