Journal of Innovative Agriculture, Volume 8, Issue 1 : 11-15. Doi : 10.37446/jinagri/rsa/8.1.2021.11-15
Research Article

OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) seed fungi in a sub-tropical district

  • Babak Pakdaman Sardrood
  • Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Khuzestan, Iran. ORCID identifier: 0000-0002-7099-101X
  • Mohammad Farkhari
  • Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Khuzestan, Iran. . ORCID identifier: 0000-0001-7217-450X.


Milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., is known as an edible and medicinal plant applied in traditional medicine, and its seed is used in the production of medicines against liver  hyperglycemia. Seed-born fungi may cause plant diseases and produce mycotoxins that are dangerous for animal and human health. Hence, the external and internal fungal infection of milk thistle seeds from six genotypes from six different geographic areas were studied through a deep-freeze blotter test. Alternaria alternata was the most prevalent fungus. Other seed-borne fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were also  observed. In addition, highly meaningful differences in the frequency of A. alternata were found among seed samples. These findings are not only important in Plant Pathology and Plant Breeding but also in Pharmacy.


Alternaria, cardus, mycotoxin, seedborne


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