Phytoremediation is an alternative technology which makes use of biological processes for detoxifying the harmful pollutants in the environment. Rapid increase of industrialization and various other factors such as agricultural activities, the excessive use of fertilizers, untreated waste, and untreated laboratory effluents lead to degradation of soil as well as environment. The heavy toxic metals plays major role because these are basically crucial for development of plants. These are generally take part in various reduction and oxidation reactions, elementary role in metabolisms of nucleic acids, electrons transferring as a direct participant and being a fundamental part of some essential enzymes. The presence at a minimum threshold amount of these heavy toxic metals in a normal growing medium is vital, but excessive high amount lead to numerous lethal effects. Hence, it becomes our foremost duty towards sustainable development goals to eradicate the toxic harmful metal ions. Certain physical and chemical technologies are used to eradicate such toxins, but due to certain limitations, natural method is preferred which is plants-based technology for eradication of noxious heavy metals from contaminated soil. This technology used from last two decades to solve the problem of eradication of harmful metal ions through plants metabolic pathway in sustainable, environment friendly way. The plants which are used as phytoremediator are generally hyperaccumulators, that can accumulate metal ions in concentration of more than 1000ppm and they must have certain properties such as branched root system, less biomass, easy harvestable. This review article focuses on the sources, harmful effects and various technologies to eradicate heavy metals by using hyperaccumulating plants.
phytoremediation, heavy metals, toxic effects, uptake mechanisms, hyperaccumulators
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