The study was conducted to identify the phenotypic variation between local quail populations in three agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Ghana. A total of 540 quails (180 males and 360 females) were involved in the study. In all, five morphometric traits: body weight (BW), body length (BL), shank length (SL), body girth (BG), and wing length (WL) were used for the investigation. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance as well as canonical discriminant analysis using Minitab19 software. It was revealed that sex had no significant (p>0.05) effect on morphometric traits measured except BW. Agro-ecological zone however, influenced all morphometric traits. The BW of local quails in the transitional zone (218.32g) was significantly (p<0.05) heaviest, followed by those in the Semi-deciduous forest (211.66g) and then Coastal Savanna (187.68g). Furthermore, it was deduced from the canonical discriminant analysis that the most vital trait for discriminating among the populations was BW. The Coastal Savanna had the local quail population with the highest similarity (71.7%); implying that quails within this AEZ may have come from related sources with similar genetic identity while the Semi-deciduous Forest had the lowest (12.2%) similarity, which could be due to the fact that the birds may have come from different sources. The largest Mahalanobis distance (D2) was found between the Coastal Savanna and the Semi-deciduous forest (2.46) and therefore, an inter-breeding program could be designed for quails selected from these two AEZs. Further studies could consider the molecular characterization of local quail populations within the three AEZs to provide additional information for decision making in designing of appropriate breed improvement scheme for quails.
Quality of Life (QoL) represents individual’s overall satisfaction with life and is assessed in relation to their concerns, goals, standards and expectations. The study compared the quality of life of spices producers (PDRs) and gatherers (GRRs) in Oyo State, Nigeria. Respondents were selected using multistage sampling procedure. A total of 73 respondents were selected from three local government areas (LGAs) in the state. Quantitative data was collected using interview schedule, the WHOQoL 2011 was used to assess respondents QoL and qualitative data was collected during focus group discussion (FGD). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the resulting data. The study revealed that majority (71.7%) of PDRs was male while majority (90.0%) of GRRs was female. Large household size characterized both categories of respondents. While majority (71.7%) of PDRs had no formal education, 50.0% of GRRs had vocational education. The study revealed that while majority (72.8%) of PDRs had high QoL index, majority (88.0%) of GRRs had low QoL index. A significant relationship was revealed between PDRs marital status, educational attainment (χ2=1.090, p=0.004; χ2=8.292, p=0.040) and QoL; and between GRRs sex (χ2=6.951, p=0.001), household size (r = 0.090, p = 0.03) and QoL. A significant difference was revealed between PDRs and GRRs QoL (t=2.410, p=0.002). Efforts to improve Quality of Life of rural dwellers focusing on improving the capabilities entailed in spices production and gathering for households to flourish is recommended.
The absence of updated information on the current status of the cattle feed bases and feed production practice is one of the important cattle feed production determinant that has been affecting cattle production in Jinka town of South Omo. This study was aimed to investigate cattle feed basis, feed availability, feed production constraints and opportunities in the Alga Kebele. A face-to-face household survey was conducted by interviewing 31 purposively selected cattle keeper households from the Alga Kebele base on cattle and cattle feed production experiences. The qualitative data such as cattle feed basis, feed availability, type of grazing land and productivity, grazing land management practices, feed conservation and feeding methods, improved forage production status and the extent of extension service in cattle feed production were analysed using non-parametric methods, while the means of the quantitative parameters such as age and sex of households, cattle number and categories and amount of land allocated for improved feed production were analysed by using parametric methods. The result showed that about 87.1% of cattle feed producers were male-headed, while 19.1% were female-headed. Almost all (96.8%) of respondents replied that natural pasture was the main cattle resource basis, while very few (3.2%) replied that crop-residue and crop aftermath were used as cattle feed bases. Most respondents (87.1%) reported that there was not enough feed production for cattle in the last five years, while very few (12.9%) said that there was enough feed produced for cattle. All respondents mentioned that the productivity of the grazing land has been decreasing since the last five years onward due to climate variability (54.8%), a lack of grazing land management strategies (38.5%), and increasing cattle populations (9.67%). Moreover, about 67.7% of respondents did not adopt improved forage production due to a lack of knowledge (41.93%), a lack of forage seed (12.9%), a lack of training and support (22.58%), and a shortage of land (19.35%). The shortage of land, climate variability, lack of forage seeds and capacity building are major cattle feed production constraints, while the existence of extension services and favourable agro-ecology is an important opportunities for cattle feed production in the study area.
The experiment was carried out in the field using a three replicate strip plot design. In the experiment, four potato varieties were used, namely Diamant, Cardinal, Asterix, and Lady Rosetta, and four irrigations were used as treatments. Four varieties and four irrigations were assigned randomly to plots. There were seven rows in each plot at 60cm distance and fourteen plants in each row at 25cm distance. The total area of each plot was 14.7 m2 (4.2 m x 3.5 m). BARI Alu-25 (Asterix) and BARI Alu-8 (Cardinal) also produced higher tuber fresh weight (g) and tuber fresh yield (t/ha) under water stress and well-watered conditions. Experiments revealed that the varieties BARI Alu-25 (Asterix) and BARI Alu-8 (Cardinal) demonstrated greater yield stability and yield contributing characteristics under water stress conditions and could be considered water stress tolerant varieties.
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) is a food and feed crop for semi-arid regions. The crop is suitable for dry and hot environments, and it yields well even with minimal inputs. Its nutritional composition ranks higher than maize. Limited research studies have been done to improve the crop’s productivity and even to breed sustainable finger millet varieties suitable in Sub-Saharan Africa. This review aims to comprehend the inheritance of key traits and their breeding implication in developing varieties for food, beverages, and feed for semi-arid regions. The review identified traits with high heritability, which were grouped into compulsory and value-added traits. Grain yield potential was identified as a compulsory trait for all sustainable finger millet varieties. Days to maturity, drought and heat tolerance, protein content and blast disease tolerance were compulsory traits for food varieties. Light-coloured grains, phosphorus use efficiency, essential minerals content, low phytates and Striga tolerance were value-added traits for food varieties. Grain size, brown coloured-grains, free amino nitrogen and diastatic power were compulsory traits for beverages/opaque beer varieties. Essential minerals content, plant height and low phytates content were value-added traits for beer varieties. Dry matter stover yield, digestible dry matter digestible yield, digestibility, and plant height were compulsory traits for feed varieties. Several basal tillers, stover nitrogen content, stover crude protein content and soluble sugars content are value-added traits for feed varieties. Heritability plus genetic-advance as a percentage of the mean influence the choice of traits in a breeding programme. However, indirect selection methods like correlated trait inheritance and molecular markers can assist in breeding traits with high heritability.