Anyigba Soils (Lat 7029’ and Long 7011’E) in Kogi State is deficient in Nitrogen and Phosphorus which retard growth and yield of cowpea crop. A field experiment was therefore conducted during the rainy seasons of years 2018 and 2019 respectively, at the student Research and Demonstration Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the influence of Nitrogen-fertilizer-starter dose and phosphorus on growth, yield attributes, final Grain yield and Grain Crude Protein content of three varieties of cowpea in Anyigba. The N-fertilizer rates were – 0, 10 and 20kg N/ha applied as urea, while the P rates were 0, 37.5 and 75.0 Kg P2O5/ha as single super phosphate (26.0% P2O5). Factorial experiment was used and treatments were arranged and laid out in Split Plot Design (SPD) and replicated three times. The results indicated that for both years, Nitrogen and Phosphorus application resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increases in growth, some yield attributes and final Grain Yield of the three varieties of cowpea. One major significant outcome of the experiment was that while Nitrogen application significantly (P<0.05) increased number of nodules produced/plant for all the sampling periods and for both years, phosphorus application however had no significant (P>0.05) influence on the character (nodule) throughout the sampling periods and for both years. The highest grain yield of 0.93tonha-1 was obtained with application of 10 kg N and 37.5 Kg P2O5/ha. Application of 10.0 Kg N ha-1 and 37.5 Kg P2O5 ha-1 of Phosphorus significantly (P<0.05) yielded a Crude Protein Content of 20.83% and 23.31% over the control plot which gave 20.54% and 19.17% Crude Protein respectively in 2018 trials. This trend was equally maintained in 2019 trials.
Milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., is known as an edible and medicinal plant applied in traditional medicine, and its seed is used in the production of medicines against liver hyperglycemia. Seed-born fungi may cause plant diseases and produce mycotoxins that are dangerous for animal and human health. Hence, the external and internal fungal infection of milk thistle seeds from six genotypes from six different geographic areas were studied through a deep-freeze blotter test. Alternaria alternata was the most prevalent fungus. Other seed-borne fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were also observed. In addition, highly meaningful differences in the frequency of A. alternata were found among seed samples. These findings are not only important in Plant Pathology and Plant Breeding but also in Pharmacy.
The experiment was conducted with the objective of estimating the genetic variability and the path coefficient analysis for yield and yield related traits of 45 newly released rice genotypes at the research field of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research – Crops Research Institute in Sokwai, Kumasi. The Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) were lower than the Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) for all the traits indicates the influence of environment on the traits. The GCV and PCV value ranged from 0.95% to 12.93% and 2.95% to 78.50%, respectively. Panicle length recorded moderate heritability together with moderate genetic advance which suggests that they can be improved through direct selection due to predominant additive variation and indicating that a moderate level of genetic variability is present in these characters. Positive and direct effect was exhibited by the plant height, tiller number per plant, plot weight before winnowing on the grain yield as important traits to be considered during selection and improvement programmes.
Assessments of genetic variability was carried out in a set of forty-one genotypes of Barnyard millet [Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link] grown in a Randomized Block Design with three replications during the Kharif, 2019-2020 at Hill Millet Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Waghai, The Dangs. The basic objective of the experiment was to assess the extent of morphological variation as well as genetic divergence in the available barnyard millet germplasm, which will serve as base for future barnyard millet crop improvement programmes. Fourteen different characters related to seed yield were recorded and subjected to estimation genetic diversity of the genotypes. Studies pertaining to genetic divergence were also carried out using Mahalanobis D2 statistics for forty-one barnyard millet genotypes and twelve clusters were formed. Clustering pattern of the genotypes was independent of their geographical distribution. Based on inter-cluster distance, cluster III and V showed the maximum distance followed by the distance between cluster III and IV. Therefore, it is concluded that the genotypes belonging to these clusters should be inter-crossed in order to generate more variability and improving grain yield in barnyard millet. On the basis of cluster means for different characters, it concluded that high yielding genotypes coupled with other important physiological traits viz.,days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height at maturity, productive tillers per plant, branches per panicle, panicle (finger) length, straw yield per plant, 1000 seed weight, protein content, Ca content, fat content, Fe content and Zn content could be selected as parents for hybridization programme from cluster III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII. Inter-crossing among the genotypes from these clusters might results in hybrids having high vigour which may further results in wide array of genetic variability for exercising effective selection. Analysis corroborated the absence of relationship between geographic origin and genetic diversity, as genotypes from the different area grouped into same clusters and the genotypes of same area were grouped in the different clusters. Therefore, breeder must evaluate their material for genetic diversity and should not merely depend on their geographical origin.
This paper examined the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to new technologies adoption and application in representative sub-humid agricultural communities of Irbid, Madaba, and Karak of Jordan. This is predicated on the need for improved performance and reinvigoration of research tools for better policymaking. Some of the strengths are saving time, increase production, and profitability for new technologies. The study explored socio-economic conditions of pulses farmers to evaluate the impacts of the introduction of new technologies of seeder use, zero-tillage, new pulses varieties, adding fertilizers with scheduling, using herbicides, using recommended seeding rates, and recommended planting dates. On the other hand, opportunities that can be explored is expected increased incomes. No problems or threats expected to the adoption and application of new technologies. The paper recommends that research and policymakers should pay proper attention to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to adoption and application of new technologies with a view of making decisions truly more responsive to local concerns and policy.
Hairy roots are obtained from the infection caused by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, a gram negative bacterium and are known to produce different complex molecules. Various biochemical pathways and physiological aspects in plants can be understood by means of hairy roots. Being genetically and biosynthetically stable as well as resultant high biomass accumulation and productivity in short period of time, these roots are great alternatives to conventional methods for the production of pharmacologically important compounds. Various biotechnological approaches i.e. culture medium components and their concentration, culture conditions, elicitation etc. are used and optimized to enhance overall yield. To meet up the increasing demand, production on industrial scale has been considered to be an important where concept of bioreactors is involved. This review presents basic idea of development of hairy roots, requirement of the optimum culture conditions and use of bioreactors to increase yield of the bioactive compounds.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) which is caused by a chronic inadequate dietary intake of vitamin A is a major public health problem in many developing countries. In SSA countries, VAD continues to be a serious public health problem despite implemented strategies to alleviate VAD. Provitamin A bio fortified maize, which has been developed through plant breeding, has the potential to act as an additional strategy to eliminate VAD. The feasibility of using provitamin A biofortified maize to alleviate VAD is critically dependent on consumer acceptance of the provitamin A biofortified maize. Generally, biofortification is used to influence the nutritional composition of the provitamin A-biofortified maize grain varieties, including carotenoid composition. Thus, in terms of grain quality and nutritional composition, provitamin A-biofortified maize varieties would be, overall, a better food source than the normal white maize. Biofortification can be achieved through conventional selective breeding or through genetic engineering or molecular breeding. It could help to identify the traits that the breeders need to focus on, in order to make the biofortified maize more acceptable.
Heritable changes in the plant's phenotype are attributed to genomic sequence change and also by epigenetic variations. These epigenetic variations are involved in controlling plants' developmental processes. Intense and close breeding has reduced the genetic variations in crop increasing their susceptibility to the changing environment. Epigenetic diversity has now emerged as a new source of variation for coping with changing environmental stresses in plants. Epigenetic modifications like DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, histone variants, and involvement of non-coding RNAs have played a major role in gene expression and regulation in plants. These epigenetic modifications have created the variability in phenotypic expression by selective turning on and turning off of the genomic sequence. These variabilities are created in plants in response to the environmental factors to which plants are exposed. These phenotypic variations accumulated by epigenetic modification are transferred and expressed in the next generation as they are heritable. DNA methylation and methylation of histone tails on the lysine 4, 9, and 27 positions are among the best-characterized epigenetic marks observed in both plants and animals. These modifications marks have altered the physical state of the DNA. The alternation in the physical state of DNA has changed the way cell reads the genes. This is the potential new area of the research as it creates phenotypic variability in response to stress factors without changing the chemical properties of the DNA. In this paper, we have presented the epigenetic modifications and the way they controlled the gene expression in plants and animals.
Phytoremediation is an alternative technology which makes use of biological processes for detoxifying the harmful pollutants in the environment. Rapid increase of industrialization and various other factors such as agricultural activities, the excessive use of fertilizers, untreated waste, and untreated laboratory effluents lead to degradation of soil as well as environment. The heavy toxic metals plays major role because these are basically crucial for development of plants. These are generally take part in various reduction and oxidation reactions, elementary role in metabolisms of nucleic acids, electrons transferring as a direct participant and being a fundamental part of some essential enzymes. The presence at a minimum threshold amount of these heavy toxic metals in a normal growing medium is vital, but excessive high amount lead to numerous lethal effects. Hence, it becomes our foremost duty towards sustainable development goals to eradicate the toxic harmful metal ions. Certain physical and chemical technologies are used to eradicate such toxins, but due to certain limitations, natural method is preferred which is plants-based technology for eradication of noxious heavy metals from contaminated soil. This technology used from last two decades to solve the problem of eradication of harmful metal ions through plants metabolic pathway in sustainable, environment friendly way. The plants which are used as phytoremediator are generally hyperaccumulators, that can accumulate metal ions in concentration of more than 1000ppm and they must have certain properties such as branched root system, less biomass, easy harvestable. This review article focuses on the sources, harmful effects and various technologies to eradicate heavy metals by using hyperaccumulating plants.
Corn and sorghum are staple forage crops in Florida. Innovative agriculture depends on science and technology to explain biological and ecological phenomena such as field plants' emergence. This research study was conducted in Florida in 2017 using two electronic thermometers (HOBO UA-001-64, and HOBO H08-032-08). One measuring the soil temperature and the other the air temperature, respectively in the location of the experiment. An analysis of the means, normality, and a comparison of the means of the two devices were performed using statistical analyzes (t, and F analyses) to know the most accurate description of emergence according to scientific literature. A soil readout thermometer (HOBO UA-001-64) appears closest and realistic to describe the emergence of corn and sorghum in Florida.
Experts and researchers in soil, plant and water science seek to understand the nature of the relationship between soil salinity and its effect on its acidity. Each plant has a tolerance range of salt and an ideal acidity level to live and grow in. 5 irrigation water samples were taken from 5 random sources in Zarqa, Jordan, in 2018 and 2019, where salinity and acidity were measured using specialized electronic probes. The regression and correlation analysis showed a weak dependency of irrigation water pH on total dissolved salts (TDS) to the point that it is a positively negligible relationship. The study recommends taking a large and random number of soil and irrigation water samples to confirm or deny this scientific observation.